Arduino Language Reference

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Arduino programs can be divided in three main parts: structurevariables and functions.

Structure:

  • setup()
  • loop()

Control Structures:

  • if
  • if…else
  • for
  • switch case
  • while
  • do… while
  • break
  • continue
  • return
  • goto

Further Syntax:

  • ; (semicolon)
  • {} (curly braces)
  • // (single line comment)
  • /* */ (multi-line comment)
  • #define
  • #include

Arithmetic Operators:

  • =  (assignment operator)
  • +  (addition)
  • –   (subtraction)
  • *   (multiplication)
  • /   (division)
  • %  (modulo)

Comparison Operators:

  • == (equal to)
  • != (not equal to)
  • < (less than)
  • > (greater than)
  • <= (less than or equal to)
  • >= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators:

  • && (and)
  • || (or)
  • ! (not)

Pointer Access Operators:

  • * dereference operator
  • & reference operator

Bitwise Operators:

  • & (bitwise and)
  • | (bitwise or)
  • ^ (bitwise xor)
  • ~ (bitwise not)
  • << (bitshift left)
  • >> (bitshift right)

Compound Operators:

  • ++ (increment)
  • – (decrement)
  • += (compound addition)
  • -= (compound subtraction)
  • *= (compound multiplication)
  • /= (compound division)
  • &= (compound bitwise and)
  • |= (compound bitwise or)

Variables:

Constants:

  • HIGH | LOW
  • INPUT | OUTPUT | INPUT_PULLUP
  • LED_BUILTIN
  • true | false
  • integer constants
  • floating point constants

Data Types:

  • void
  • boolean
  • char
  • unsigned char
  • byte
  • int
  • unsigned int
  • word
  • long
  • unsigned long
  • short
  • float
  • double
  • string – char array
  • String – object
  • array

Conversion:

  • char()
  • byte()
  • int()
  • word()
  • long()
  • float()

Variable Scope & Qualifiers:

  • variable scope
  • static
  • volatile
  • const

Utilities:

  • sizeof()
  • PROGMEM

Functions:

Digital I/O:

  • pinMode()
  • digitalWrite()
  • digitalRead()

Analog I/O:

  • analogReference()
  • analogRead()
  • analogWrite() – PWM

Due only:

  • analogReadResolution()
  • analogWriteResolution()

Advanced I/O:

  • tone()
  • noTone()
  • shiftOut()
  • shiftIn()
  • pulseIn()

Time:

  • millis()
  • micros()
  • delay()
  • delayMicroseconds()

Math:

  • min()
  • max()
  • abs()
  • constrain()
  • map()
  • pow()
  • sqrt()

Trigonometry:

  • sin()
  • cos()
  • tan()

Random Numbers:

  • randomSeed()
  • random()

Bits and Bytes:

  • lowByte()
  • highByte()
  • bitRead()
  • bitWrite()
  • bitSet()
  • bitClear()
  • bit()

External Interrupts:

  • attachInterrupt()
  • detachInterrupt()

Interrupts:

  • interrupts()
  • noInterrupts()

Communication:

  • Serial
  • Stream

USB (Leonardo and Due only):

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
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